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What is the difference between Alzheimer's disease & dementia?

On a cold, snowy winter day, a bowl of soup sounds good.

“What’s the soup of the day?” you ask the waitress at your favorite restaurant. A few minutes later you are enjoying a steaming cup of clam chowder.

“Soup” is a general term for a category of food. Soup comes in dozens of flavors, like chicken noodle, tomato, clam chowder, or mushroom. Every can of mushroom or tomato soup is soup—but not every can of soup is mushroom or tomato.

This simple example, first used by Canadian dementia expert Carol Bowlby Sifton, is an elegant way to describe the differences between dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.

Like “soup,” the word “dementia” is an umbrella term for anything that can cause issues with brain functioning such as confusion, memory loss, or loss of problem solving ability. While Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia in older persons, there are many more varieties, including Lewy Body dementia, vascular dementia, or frontal lobe dementia.

Families often say that they struggle to understand what doctors mean by dementia. That’s why it’s important to ask the doctor what type of dementia is being diagnosed. David Troxel, a noted dementia expert who worked with Home Instead Senior Care to develop its Alzheimer’s and Other Dementias Training Program, emphasizes that the doctor should be able to tell you the specific diagnosis and the reason for that diagnosis, just like the waitress should be able to tell you the soup of the day and how that is different from other soups.

“It’s important to know the type of dementia being diagnosed,” Troxel said, “because different dementias have different characteristics, and family members need to know what to expect.” Persons with frontal lobe dementia, for example, often undergo profound personality changes and can get very disinhibited and outrageous. Persons with Lewy Body dementia may have profound visual hallucinations, including talking to little people in the room or seeing animals that are not really present. “It can be very helpful and reassuring for families to know that a particular behavior is part of the disease process, not just ‘bad behavior’,” Troxel noted.

In addition, different dementias may call for different medicines. Individuals with pure frontal lobe dementia often don’t do well on the typical memory medications like Aricept, Exelon & Razadyne, but they may respond to an anti-depressant. Persons with Lewy Body dementia seem to be very sensitive to mood-altering medications like anti-psychotics. In fact, an old nursing phrase says, “start low and go slow” when giving psychotropic medications to a person with Lewy Body dementia.

Finally, when the physician gives you a specific diagnosis it’s a sign that you’ve seen a medical provider who understands the contemporary best practices surrounding diagnosis. You can feel that you and your family member are in good hands.

Likewise, other professionals you may work with to care for your family member, such as professional in home caregivers, should be trained to understand the distinctions between various dementias. Paul Hogan, chairman of Home Instead Senior Care, says “Our CAREGivers are trained to understand the differences between Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia. We want our clients’ families to know that we are here for them no matter which dementia diagnosis they face.”

Family caregivers can form a care team with the senior’s doctors, pharmacists, and other care providers focused on providing the best possible care and that focus needs to include an accurate understanding of the diagnosis, its symptoms, and its possible treatments. “Until we find a cure, the best approach to any of these dementias is engagement, activities, communication and loving care,” says Hogan.

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To find a caregiver in your area, contact your local Home Instead Senior Care office.

Thoughts and stories from others

  1. September 4, 2015 at 03:29 pm
    Posted by Susan

    My husband is diagnosed with Parkinson's with dementia. His type has been identified as Lewy Body Dementia and he has been living with this diagnosis for over 10 years. Things such as memory, ability to communicate, swallowing problems fluctuate back and forth. About 4 years ago he became wheelchair bound and unable to walk His needs (incontinence, poor balance resulting in many falls,etc.) forced me to place him in a skilled nursing facility where he receives round the clock care. I visit him daily and feed him his lunch which is now all pureed. Hope this is helpful.
  2. May 24, 2015 at 05:50 pm
    Posted by Charles Aissen

    My Mom passed away this month from Alzheimer's. Official diagnosis was back 2004. She went through all the stages. In 2008 she was approaching the final stages and I had to place her in a nursing home. She suffered with this for 11 years. She also developed other medical issues as well. From 2008 to 2015 she deteriorated year after year. She lost her eye sight, some of her hearing and needed 24/7 care. Now she is in peace.
  3. May 18, 2015 at 06:25 pm
    Posted by lana

    Hi, I've been working with Dementia/Alzheimer's residents for over a year, it is quite possible that your husband could not recognize his family. This is a very hard disease to cope with. From day to day you never know what's next.
  4. March 27, 2015 at 08:05 pm
    Posted by marty rhomson

    Await your info.
  5. December 4, 2014 at 03:56 pm
    Posted by Luella Presley

    My husband was diagnosed with Parkingson's Disease in 2007, but I believe he had signs of it before then. He has the dementia to go along with it, but I do not know what form of it he has. I was told that Dementia turns into Alzheimers- is this true? I keep telling him that I don't think he will get to the point of forgetting me and the kids, but now I am wondering if I am wrong I would appreciate any help you can give me. Thanks.

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