Trying to explain away fears in the middle of a panic attack—when your family member’s heart might be racing, breathing is shallow, and feelings of terror are overwhelming—almost never works. While it’s happening, be supportive and comforting. Repeat simple phrases like “you’re going to be okay” or “we’ll take care of the problem.” Be lavish with your hugs.

Panic attacks can come out of nowhere, but when they are associated with dementia, there is often a trigger. When the attack is over and your loved one is calm, look back on the situation. What might have caused it?

Could it be something in the environment, such as a visit from a neighborhood pet or some overly active children? Is the room dark and full of shadows, confusing or scaring the person?

Was the person afraid of being abandoned or afraid that something has happened to a family member? The profound forgetfulness and confusion of dementia can trigger panic attacks. Reminders and reassuring words can help in these situations.

Could it have to do with the time of day, especially if the attacks seem to occur at the same time? One family whose mother was panicky in the evening found that things improved when they increased the indoor lighting and kept the lights on bright, particularly during dusk and late afternoon.

Visual hallucinations common with Lewy Body dementia can also frighten the person and cause panic. In these cases, ask the person to tell you more about what he or she is seeing and make an appropriate response. For example, if he is seeing a stranger in the backyard, let him know that you will investigate things and make sure the house is locked up. You might even add some reassuring words, “It’s probably just that sweet neighborhood boy who likes to explore.”

Behavior like panic attacks can accompany dementia. When you respond in a thoughtful, creative and confident manner it will help calm the person and help them feel safe, secure and valued.